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This 3D interactive cross-section model is depicting tuberculosis, an infection of lung tissue by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The initial infection causes inflammation of the alveoli and surrounding capillaries. Also shown is a corresponding interactive CT scan. To learn more about tuberculosis and experience so much more amazing physiology and pathology content, get our brand new app Physiology & Pathology now! Link in bio.
If an antigen is detected, airway cells secrete antibodies and other substances that start an immune response. These reactions cause the body to expel harmful substances by a defense mechanism such as coughing. This is vital to the protection of the lungs and alveoli and to restoration of normal airflow. To learn all about the physiology of normal airway function, as well as what can happen when things go wrong, download our brand new app Physiology & Pathology! Click the link in our bio!
How incredibly detailed and cool is this?! This 3D interactive model depicts polycystic kidney disease (PKD), an inherited condition in which fluid-filled cysts damage and then replace normal kidney tissue, leading to the breakdown of kidney function. To learn more about PKD and experience so much more amazing physiology and pathology content, get our brand new app Physiology & Pathology now! Link in bio.
In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by inflammation of the intestinal walls. Crohn's disease, a type of IBD, can affect different areas in one or both intestines. Inflammation causes edema and abscesses throughout the GI wall that can affect nearby intestinal grooves and other structures. To learn more about inflammatory bowel diseases and experience so much more amazing physiology and pathology content, get our brand new app Physiology & Pathology now! Link in bio.
This 3D interactive model is depicting kidney stones. They're undissolved mineral or acid salts in urine that have crystallized and joined into calculi. To learn more about kidney stones and experience so much more amazing physiology and pathology content, get our brand new app Physiology & Pathology now! Link in bio.
The endocardium lies underneath the myocardium, and forms the innermost layer of the heart wall. It is a thin membrane consisting of connective tissue and elastic fibers. The endocardium lines the heart's internal structures and is continuous with the lining of blood vessels that attach to the heart. Inside the ventricles, muscular columns known as the trabeculae carnae project from the endocardial surface. Inside the atria, the endocardial surface is smooth in some areas and in other areas it is raised into muscular ridges known as the musculi pectinati. For more awesome anatomy and pathology, get our brand new app Physiology & Pathology! Link in bio!
The lungs sit atop the diaphragm, a muscle that forms the floor of the thoracic cavity. The action of the diaphragm is key to the physical process of breathing. During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves inferiorly, toward the abdominal cavity. This allows the volume of the thoracic cavity and the lungs to increase. It also explains why your abdomen puffs out when you take a deep breath. During normal exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes (along with the external intercostal muscles). The thoracic cavity and lungs decrease, and air is expelled. Get Atlas 2020 now, link in bio!
The radiate sternocostal ligaments are fibrous bands of tissue that attach the sternal ends of the costal cartilages of ribs 1-7 to the sternum. They help give the ribs the mobility they need to accommodate breathing. The pleurae form a double-layered serous membrane around the lungs. The outer pleura of each lung is called the parietal pleura. It covers the mediastinum, the superior part of the diaphragm, and the inside of the thoracic wall. The inner pleura is called the visceral pleura, and it covers the surface of each lung as well as the fissures between the lobes of each lung. The space between the parietal and visceral pleurae is called the pleural cavity, and it’s filled with a special fluid that helps prevent friction as the lungs move against the walls of the thoracic cavity. Get Atlas 2020 now! Click the link in our bio.
You open your eyes and see the world, but are you conscious of the fact that you are doing so? You opened Instagram, saw this post, and now you're reading this caption. Hello, reader. I like your shirt. Your hair looks really good, too. That you've interpreted what you just saw and have taken it as a compliment is an example of visualization, a.k.a. "Hurrah! You can see things." Visualization is something we take for granted. You open your eyes and expect the world to appear around you. Don't lie, you totally do. In fact, you weren't consciously aware you were seeing things until I just reminded you 10 seconds ago.The retina is a layer of nervous tissue in the interior of the eye, continuing into the cranium as the optic nerve. The white of the eye is the sclera, and the transparent part of the eye is the cornea. The iris is the pigmented portion (where we determine eye color), and behind the iris is a lens that focuses light to form an image on the retina (remember: the image on the retina is inverted!). Between the cornea and iris is a chamber filled with fluid called the aqueous humor, and between the iris and retina is a chamber filled with fluid called the vitreous humor. For more amazing anatomy content, download Human Anatomy Atlas 2020! Link in bio.
Blood supply to the body's organs is obviously important, but blood supply to the brain is super important. Think of it as plugging in your laptop—you need a continuous power source to keep everything running. Numerous branches of the Circle of Willis (the cerebral arterial circle) distribute blood throughout the brain and provide collateral circulation. To learn more and experience more anatomy awesomeness, get Human Anatomy Atlas 2020 now. Click the link in our bio.
If so many people have to get their wisdom teeth removed, why do we have them in the first place? The short answer is that you don’t need them to function in the modern world. Back in the day, though, our ancestors ate raw meat and fibrous plants, and they needed more molars to grind up all that tough material. Fortunately for those of us who don’t enjoy raw meat, human cultures have come up with a ton of amazing and delicious ways to cook and prepare food. Cooking makes many types of food easier to eat and digest in addition to unlocking its full caloric potential. (It also makes great TV.) While our jaws adapted as a result of these changes in our diet, becoming less broad, our number of teeth remained constant. So now lots of people have too many teeth and not enough space to accommodate them all. To learn more and experience more anatomy awesomeness, get Human Anatomy Atlas 2020 now! Link in bio.
The renal medulla consists of numerous pyramids, which are striated conical masses of tubules. These pyramids have wide bases that face the renal cortex and narrow into apices, called papillae, as they converge towards the pelvis. The soft and granular renal cortex arches over the bases of the pyramids and dips in between them, forming renal columns. These columns are composed of blood vessels, urinary tubes, and fibrous material. All of these help to anchor the renal cortex, which with the medulla, contains the nephrons: the functional units of the kidney. Get Human Anatomy Atlas 2020 today! Click the link in our bio.
The outermost layer is the serosa, which is continuous with the mesentery (tissues connecting the intestines to the abdominal wall). It contains blood vessels and nerves, and it secretes fluid to lubricate the small intestine, protecting it from damage due to friction. Under the serosa, is the longitudinal muscle layer. This muscle, in conjunction with the circular muscle (located just under the submucosa), contracts in peristaltic waves, moving food through the intestines. The longitudinal muscle shortens the tract to facilitate the movement of chyme, while the circular muscle prevents chyme from traveling backwards. The submucosa is composed of dense connective tissue to support the mucosa and connect it to the muscular layers. It also contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves to supply the mucosa. Next is the muscularis mucosae which comprises several thin layers of smooth muscle. It gently stimulates the mucosa and intestinal glands, helping to expel chyme and enhancing contact between mucosa and chyme in the lumen. The mucosa is the innermost layer; it surrounds the lumen where the chyme passes. It has three principal functions: protection of the inner environment, secretion, and absorption. The mucosa is incredibly folded, creating villi. Get Human Anatomy Atlas 2020 now! Link in bio.
The villi, our teensy-weensy finger-like digestive projections even have their own projections: microvilli. The villi and microvilli create such a large absorptive surface that the surface area of the small intestine is about 250 m2 (almost 2,700 ft2). That's the size of a tennis court! Learn more and experience incredible anatomy awesomeness with Human Anatomy Atlas 2020! Link in bio.
Aortic disruption from blunt trauma is the leading cause of immediate death. The aorta is the big kahuna of the body's blood vessels; disruption of blood flow would greatly impede perfusion to vital organs and the extremities. A "disruption" is just medical speak for small tear, laceration, occlusion, or complete rupture. Occlusion carries a pretty good prognosis if diagnosed early. The most common mechanism of aortic disruption is rapid deceleration from a high speed impact, either an automobile accident or a fall from a great height. Rapid deceleration can create shearing forces on the great vessels, causing partial or even complete tears. Complete tears are most often fatal at the scene, but patients who survive the initial injury have a pretty high chance of pulling through with rapid identification and treatment. Location-wise, the most common spot for aortic tears or ruptures is the descending portion distal to the left subclavian artery at the ligamentum arteriosum. Why the descending aorta? Well, it's fixed to the vertebrae so it decelerates at the same rate as the body. The heart and aortic arch usually move laterally and inferiorly into the left hemithorax. This results in a shearing, twisting, and bending of the descending aorta, producing maximal stress. The two other sites for tears are where the aorta leaves its protective pericardial sac, and the entry to the diaphragm. The treatment includes both an aortic repair as well as maintaining control of blood pressure. If the BP is elevated, it can cause the aorta to completely rupture, leading to exsanguination (bleeding out). For more amazing anatomy content, grab Human Anatomy Atlas 2020 for yourself; click the link in our bio.
When chyme (partially digested food and gastric juices) leaves the stomach, its first stop is the duodenum, a short, wide stretch of the small intestine. Here, the chyme mixes with digestive enzymes from the liver and pancreas. Upon relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi, bile secreted by the liver and pancreatic juices secreted by the pancreas enter the duodenum to help out. They aid in chemical digestion and also help reduce acidity from the strong gastric juices. Coming in at only 25 cm, the duodenum is the shortest segment of the small intestine. Moving through the GI tract, the next stop is the jejunum. It's got a diameter of about 4 cm and is 2.5 m in length. Here, there are also large circular folds of submucosa called plicae circulares. Lastly, on our journey through the small intestine, we reach the ileum. This is the small intestine's longest segment, coming in at about 3.5 m. The ileum is slightly less vascular and a lighter color than the jejunum. Check out even more amazing anatomy in Human Anatomy Atlas 2020 by visiting the link in our bio!